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Vietnam case study: Drivers of policy change towards providing integrated early childhood development
Abbott P, D’Ambruoso L, Duc DM, Thuy Duong DT, Hanoi University of Public Health, University of Aberdeen, 2019

In 2000, Vietnam publicly committed to all children benefitting from at least one year of preschool education by 2015, with law and policy reform so that one year of preschool became compulsory in 2010. Monitoring of the policy implementation showed that inequalities between urban and rural areas declined, except for children from ethnic minorities and remote regions. The evidence motivated a change in resource allocation, while in 2017 the government introduced an integrated early child development scheme, covering education, health and social policies for children from 0 to 6 years. Policy making in Vietnam occurs behind closed doors, making it difficult to track how political support was built for these policies, but international development partners and a mass membership organisation for women and mothers affiliated to the government played important roles in building support among political actors and parents respectively.